The Belly Flu

 

You’re hunkered over the toilet praying you’re not going throw up again or you’re curled up on the couch waiting for the next rush of cramps sending you speeding back to the bathroom. Most of us have been there and it’s no fun. Sometimes you just tough it out at home and sometimes it gets so bad you have to see the doctor.

Gastroenteritis goes by several names; belly flu, traveller’s diarrhea or Montezuma’s revenge in Mexico and Delhi belly in India, food poisoning and infectious diarrhea. Whatever you call it, it is a significant problem for people around the world. It is caused when the lining of your intestines is irritated or inflamed and is caused by both viruses and bacteria. The Rotovirus is the most common cause in kids. The Norovirus is the most common cause in adults.  You may have heard of the Norwalk viruse recently causing horrible outbreaks of gastroenteritis on some cruises. The Norwalk virus is a strain of the Norovirus and sometimes people use the names interchangeably. Bacteria can cause it too. We often think of E-coli or salmonella but C-jejuni is the most common offender in the bacteria world. Parasites like giardia and cryptosporidium cause diarrhea from contaminated water sources and I always worry about them in anyone that tells me they have been swimming or drinking from ponds, lakes or streams.

How do you get gastroenteritis? The list is short: food, people and contaminated water. Seafood and products with eggs and mayonnaise are especially common causes. Undercooked chicken (C-jejuni) and beef (E-coli) are also causes, which is why one shouldn’t order their steak rare. Coming into direct contact with infected people or touching things they’ve touched like door handles or sink handles. Contaminated water is the most common cause worldwide and I pray for the day the entire world has access to clean water.

What are the symptoms of gastroenteritis?   Diarrhea and vomiting are obviously the most well known. Other symptoms include: abdominal pain or cramping, nausea, fever, dehydration, incontinence, muscle cramps, poor feeding (especially in children) or decreased wet diapers in babies. It is uncommon to have bleeding in your diarrhea and if you do go to your doctor immediately.

How do we diagnosis gastroenteritis? Usually a doctor takes a history and does a physical examination. We don’t usually need to do stool studies. Most people have a viral cause, which usually resolves with time and so stool studies rarely aid in the diagnosis. If you have been out of the country or camping or there is a local outbreak of food poisoning then stool studies are possibly helpful.   There is a new community acquired bacterial cause that is making its way around, C-dificile, and can be severe. We used to worry about it in nursing homes and hospitals mostly but it has made its way out into the community now and is a nasty little germ. There is a stool test specifically designed for diagnosing C-dificile and takes about a day to get results back.

How do we treat this? Hydration, hydration and more hydration. We want you to drink fluids with electrolytes if you can. Drink water too but also add in drinks that have electrolytes to replace what you’re losing in the diarrhea and vomiting. Avoid milk while you have diarrhea as your intestines are temporarily unable to digest it and it will worsen your symptoms. Some people swear by probiotics. The studies on probiotics aren’t conclusive but I like to recommend them to my patients. Sometimes adding in a fiber supplement helps bulk your stool up. Medicines like Zofran and Phenergan are helpful for the vomiting. I especially like the new sublingual Zofran tablets which have helped people, especially kids, avoid having to get an IV. Antibiotics are rarely helpful and in some cases even dangerous. That’s not say you never need an antibiotic but the cases are rare and your doctor can determine if you are one of the patients that needs them. What about anti-diarrheal medicines like Imodium? Most doctors don’t recommend using them and they can actually prolong your symptoms but if you’re just absolutely miserable you can use them sparingly. I like prescribing anti-cramping medicines like bentyl too. Now none of these medicines will just stop the symptoms completely but they help. Time is what you need mostly. Time and hydration. If you feel like the symptoms are just uncontrollable at home then see your doctor or consider an urgent care or an ER.

Feel better.

John Turner MD

My Emergency Room 24/7

My Urgent Care

My Primary Care Clinic

Author
Dawn Elder Business Development Director

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